Jordan Guide


Al Khazneh

Al Khazneh is one of the most elaborate buildings in the ancient Jordanian city of Petra. As with most of the other buildings in this ancient town, the structure was carved out of a sandstone rock face. It has classical Greek-influenced architecture, and it is a popular tourist attraction.

It is unknown as to why Al Khazneh was originally built, probably between 100 BC and 200 AD.[1] Its Arabic name Treasury derives from a legend that bandits or pirates hid their loot in a stone urn high on the second level. Significant damage from bullets can be seen on the urn. Local lore attributes this to Bedouins, who are said to have shot at the urn in hopes of breaking it open and spilling out the “treasure” within (the decorative urn, however, is solid sandstone). Many of the building’s architectural details have eroded away during the two thousand years since it was carved and sculpted from the cliff.

There are burial chambers on either side of a ramp (not shown in the image to the right) which were excavated in 2003.


Jabal Ram

50274Jabal Ram is a mountain in Jordan. Most authorities give its elevation as 1,734 m (5,689 ft) metres above sea level. It was once thought to be the highest point in Jordan, but SRTM data shows that Jabal Umm al Dami is 1,854 m (6,083 ft)[metres above sea level and therefore higher.


Ancient sites

  • Petra in Ma’an, the home of Nabateans, is a complete city carved in a mountain. The rocks are colorful, mostly pink, and the entrance to the ancient city is a 1.25km narrow crack in the mountain – called the Siq. In the city are various structures, all (except 2) are carved into rock, including the al Khazneh – otherwise known as the Treasury – which is now nominated by the New Seven Wonders organization to be one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Other major sites of interest in Petra include the Monastery, the Roman theater, the Royal Tombs, the High Place of Sacrifice. Petra was rediscovered for the western world by Swiss explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in 1812.
  • Umm Qais, a town located on the site of the ruined Hellenistic-Roman city of Gadara.
  • Ajlun, famous for the Islamic al-Rabadh Castle.
  • Jerash, famous for its its ancient Roman architecture, including the colonnaded streets, arches, Roman theatres, and the Oval Plaza.
  • Amman contains the Roman theater, in addition to several museums, where one may find remains of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
  • Al Karak contains an important castle from the times of Salah al-Din, known as Al-Karak Castle.

Culture

In the territory of Jordan is Petra.

petra_461

In summer, is an international festival of Arab music Jerash Festival.

National Day falls on May 25, a public holiday is Friday.

Although not as Wealthy as the Persian Gulf countries, Jordan is one of the best-organized, clean and safe countries of the region, and society is much more tolerant than its neighbors. As with all Arabs, as one of the most important virtues flowing hospitality. The intake of food, especially coffee and tea is celebrated with great pleasure, alcohol is not administered.

Gender segregation in force in some cafes. On the streets to see a few women dressed in Western. In some districts of cities in the street men prevail. Jordanian society is firmly committed to traditional values and is not too open to strangers.


Background

Most of the time since independence from the British administration 1946, King Hussein of Jordan (1953-99) reigns. He was a pragmatic statesman who understood it, pressure from the major powers (U.S., USSR and Britain), the Arab states, Israel and the Palestinian people despite the various wars and attempts to coordinate intervention. 1989, he allowed elections and a slow political liberalization. In 1994 a formal peace treaty with Israel. Abdullah II, the eldest son of King Hussein and Princess Muna, climbed after the death of his father’s throne in 1999. Since then he has consolidated his power and the current course continues. It also includes an extensive economic reform program. In January 2000, Jordan joined the World Trade Organization and signed in the same year an FTA with the U.S. and in 2001 with the EFTA.


History

With the break-up of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, the League of Nations created the French Mandate of Syria and British Mandate of Palestine. More than 70% of the British Mandate of Palestine was east of the Jordan river and was known as “Transjordan”. Untill 1921, the land was supposed to be part of the Jewish National Homeland, the land designated by the League of Nations to be the future Jewish State of Israel. In 1921 , the British gave semi-autonomous control of Transjordan to the future King Abdullah I of Jordan, of the Hashemite family, as compensation for the crowning of his brother in Syria. This partitian was against the British Empire’s promise to make Palestine a Jewish state as was required according to the mandate, and as such outraged the Jewish population, but pressure from the Arabs caused the British to acquiesce to the Hashemites demands.

Abdullah I continued to rule until a Palestinian Arab assassinated him in 1951 as he was departing from the al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem. At first he ruled “Transjordan”, under British supervision until after World War II. In 1946, the British requested that the United Nations approve an end to British Mandate rule in Transjordan. Following this approval, the Jordanian Parliament proclaimed King Abdullah as the first ruler of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

In 1950, Jordan annexed the West Bank, which had been under its control since the armistice that followed the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. The annexation was recognized only by the United Kingdom (de facto in the case of east Jerusalem).

In 1965, there was an exchange of land between Saudi Arabia and Jordan. Jordan gave up a relatively large area of inland desert in return for a small piece of sea-shore near Aqaba.


Geography

Jordan is a Southwest Asian country, bordered by Syria to the north, Iraq to the northeast, Saudi Arabia to the east and south and Israel and the West Bank to the west. All these border lines add up to 1,619 km (1,006 mi). The Gulf of Aqaba and the Dead Sea also touch the country, and thus Jordan has a coastline of 26 km (16 mi).

Jordan consists of arid forest plateau in the east irrigated by oasis and seasonal water streams, with highland area in the west of arble land and Mediterranean evergreen forestry. The Great Rift Valley of the Jordan River separates Jordan, the west bank and Israel. The highest point in the country is Jabal Ram, it is 1,734 m (5,689 ft) above sea level, while the lowest is the Dead Sea -420 m (-1,378 ft). Jordan is part of a region considered to be “the cradle of civilization”, the Levant region of the Fertile Crescent.

Major cities include the capital Amman in the northwest, Irbid and Az Zarqa, both in the north. Karak and Aqaba in the south.

The climate in Jordan is dry in summer with average temperature in the mid-30°C (mid-90°F) and relatively cold in winter averaging around the 0 °C (32 °F). The western part of the country receives greater precipitation during the winter season from November to March and snowfall in Amman (756 m (2,480 ft) ~ 980 m (3,215 ft) above sea-level) and Western Heights of 500 m (1,640 ft). Excluding the rift valley the rest of the country is entirely above 300 m (984 ft)(SL).


When to Go

The best time to visit Jordan is in spring or autumn, when you can dodge the baking sun of summer and the freezing winds of winter. Although winter can be bitterly cold in most of the country, the Red Sea area and Aqaba are still very pleasant. If you’re planning to travel through the rest of the Middle East, try heading north into Turkey around spring, or south into Egypt by autumn.

The tourist authorities usually plan festivals (such as the Jerash Festival) for the summer period.

The month of Ramadan is a time when visitors should not eat, drink or smoke in public during the day so it’s a tricky time to visit. Eid al-Fitr, the great celebration at the end of Ramadan, is a fun time to visit but it’s best to bunker down for a few days because public transport is heavily booked and hotel rooms are sometimes hard to find, especially in Aqaba.

Note also that most of the excellent ecotourism projects operated in Jordan’s Dana, Wadi Mujib and Ajlun nature reserves only operate between April and October.


Amman

Amman (pronounced [ɑˈmɑːn]), sometimes spelled Ammann (Arabic عمان ʿAmmān), is the capital city of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, a city of 2,125,400 inhabitants (2005 estimate), and the administrative capital and commercial center of Jordan. It is also the largest city in Jordan. It is the capital city of Amman Governorate.


Jordan

Jordan , is a country in the Arab World in Southwest Asia, bordered by Syria to the north, Iraq to the north-east, Israel and the West Bank to the west, and Saudi Arabia to the east and south. It shares with Israel the coastlines of the Dead Sea, and the Gulf of Aqaba with Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Egypt.The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a constitutional monarchy with representative government. The reigning monarch is the head of state, the chief executive and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The king exercises his executive authority through the prime ministers and the Council of Ministers, or cabinet. The cabinet, meanwhile, is responsible before the elected House of Deputies which, along with the House of Notables (Senate), constitutes the legislative branch of the government. The judicial branch is an independent branch of the government.